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Aspects of the operation of Heat Pumps

As noted earlier, the task of a heat pump to heat transfer for either cooling or heating. Coolant from the system refrigerant. The term " heat pump includes refrigeration part of the total mass of plants, which, as a rule, the heat exchanger on the cold side temperature-raising device with the introduction of energy storage, the heat exchanger on the warm side, and, in most cases, an expansion device for cooling cycle. All chillers are intended for use as heat pumps. The following were used (Dincer, 2003)
  • cold air machine, the use of air as a working fluid.
  • cold vapor machine, using the evaporation and condensation of the working fluid, which can be water vapor or heat carrier; energy, can be provided with compression and absorption of the steam jet principle.
  • thermoelectric principle (Peltier effect). As in the refrigeration, cold steam, heat pump with mechanical compression of the heat-carrier couples is the most important. The highly advanced technology and design can also be fully utilized for heat pumps.
All of the designs mentioned, you can use both cooling and heating effects with the good purpose.

Different usage is also possible at different times, for example, for cooling in summer and heating in winter period, as required, in particular, for air conditioning. There are two ways for this type of operation:
  • Changes of flow in the heat exchangers; for example, in a heat exchanger on the cold side, using cold water in summer for air-conditioning (cooling) and groundwater as a source of heat in the winter or in the heat exchanger on the warm side, using water cooling system in the summer and warm water for space heating in winter.
  • Change of coolant circuit, so that during the years of operation of the heat exchanger on the warm side, something that gives off heat groundwater becomes heat exchanger on the cold side in the winter of extracting heat from the groundwater. Similarly, another heat exchanger, which in summer is cooled cold water circuit on the cold side for air conditioning in winter the heat exchanger on the warm side, which heats heating, water, air-conditioning. Replacing the coolant is possible only in thermoelectric systems and cold vapor reciprocating compressors and appropriate valves reversible, because the complexity of transition in the other system is too big.
Below are some guidelines that should be followed to ensure efficient, convenient in operation of air heat pumps (Carrier, 2000).

  • Do not install the temperature back at night or when you are at work, if programmable heat pump, thermostat. As heat pumps work differently than fossil fuel heating systems, the failure of standard heat pump thermostat may actually increase energy consumption. This is due to the use of additional heaters to bring into the house of the temperature to the desired temperature. The use of additional heaters reduce the efficiency of the heat pump system and, as a result, higher energy costs.
  • Save the set-point temperature consistent. Standard heat pump, thermostat has two lines, one for the heat pump and one additional heat. If the difference between the temperature in the room and the temperature thermostat is more than 2 or 3 C, an additional heat will be activated. Manually adjusting the thermostat will result in greater reliance on extra heater and reduce the efficiency of the heat pump system and increase operating costs.
  • Replace the filters regularly. Vacuum dirt and dust from the indoor coil once a year to prevent the restriction of air flow.
  • Adequate air flow through the heat pump system is critical for effective and comfortable work.
  • Keep supply vents open and free of obstacles. Closing of the inlet openings will restrict the airflow and reduce the efficiency of the system and the life of the compressor.
The heat pump is one of the most energy-efficient heating and cooling systems available today. Unlike other types of heating systems, fuel conversion or electricity directly heat, the heat pump is used to move heat from one place to another. Even at temperatures as cold as -18 C or below, the heat pump is the ability to extract heat from outdoor air for use in heating a home...
 
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