Except for the air, and all liquids are toxic in the sense that they cause choking, when they are present in concentrations, large enough to displace the oxygen required to sustain life. That means, toxicity is a relative term that becomes meaningful only when the degree of concentration and time of exposure needed to produce harmful effects are. Some liquids are labelled as toxic as they can cause health problems in relatively small concentrations or for a shorter period of exposure. Other marked as moderately toxic, because they are only capable of causing harmful effects in relatively high concentrations, or after prolonged exposure. These fluids can be marked nontoxic, if the system does not contain sufficient quantities to cause toxic reactions, if a catastrophic leak. However, in some refrigerants are classified as non-toxic, when they are mixed with air, spread out in a highly toxic components when they come in contact with an open flame or electric heating element. This is true for most^fairies-orocarbon refrigerants. The dangers that arise from the use of toxic refrigerants depends on the following factors:
- the quantity of refrigerant used in relation to the size of the space, which can occur in the refrigerant outflow
- the smell of refrigerant
- be open fire or high temperature elements are present in space
- type of placement in space
- whether the knowledgeable staff is on duty to attend to die equipment
Factor 1 States that small amounts of highly toxic refrigerant is reduced hazard when used in relatively large areas.
Low hazard justified if it is impossible for leakage produce harmful level of concentration when diluted in the atmosphere from space. In other words, toxic refrigerants used in volumes, small compared to the amount of space equipment represent less dangerous than if the equipment was in a smaller space. Factor 2 dirough 5 state that the danger inherent in the use of the most toxic refrigerants somewhat tempered by the fact that they (including decomposition products) have a very noticeable smells, which serve as a warning of their presence in space.
Therefore, these toxic refrigerants only classified as a danger in diose places where the invaders are not able to easily avoid evaporation. For example, natural gas is odorless liquid that is very strong-smelling compounds mixed with it before distribution serve as a warning that the leak occurred. Currently, ammonia is only toxic refrigerant used to any great degree. Its use is generally limited to large packing plants, ice plants and large refrigeration warehouses. These applications possible because automatic alarm systems monitor air and die warning experienced operators when a potential hazard occurs. Licensed operators are present in the location of the equipment using large quantities of ammonia refrigerant monitor its performance, maintenance and respond to security issues that may arise...